Some people experience a runner’s high after a run, a feeling of euphoria and relaxation that lasts for a short time. Running can cause headaches for some people.
Researchers first described exercise or exertion-related headaches in 1968. They can occur during or following a period of intense physical activity, such as running, heavy lifting, sneezing or sex.
Exertion headaches can vary in severity from person to person. However, they are usually characterized by a pulsating sensation on both sides of your head. This is similar to what some people describe as a migraine.
They can last from a few seconds to a couple days. Some people experience multiple headache episodes.
There are still few scientific studies on exertion headaches, despite the fact that they affect between 1 and 26% of adults (and as much as 30% of adolescents).
It could be that they aren’t painful enough to stop people from exercising, or they stop when people stop exercising. Or, because the symptoms are similar to those of other headaches, such as migraine, people are treated instead for them.
They could be more common that we think.
In studies that have involved a small number of people, headaches of this nature are most common among people aged between 22 and 40, although they often begin before 30.
Around 80 percent of those who took part in the study were men. It will take more research to determine if men are more likely than women to suffer from them, and if they are, why.
Why they happen
Exercise increases blood flow to our brain to ensure that it has enough oxygen for us to move. This also means that our brains have to expel more CO 2 and heat. Our blood vessels stretch to cope with this.
Exercise can trigger headaches for some people due to their different anatomy and physiology. For some, exertion headaches are caused by certain conditions.
Exercise in hot weather can be an example. The brain runs at a higher temperature than the rest. It cannot dissipate the heat through sweating.
It can only get rid of the heat by increasing blood flow to the brain. This will help to remove some of the heat.
Exercise can increase the temperature of the brain, which in turn causes blood vessels to swell.
This could explain why some people get the characteristic pulsating head pain only when they exercise in hot weather.
Exercise at altitude can also increase the risk of headaches. This is because the blood’s oxygen-carrying capability is reduced at altitude. This is due to the reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood at altitude.
This means that more blood must be sent to the brain in order to provide all the oxygen needed, causing swelling and pain.
People with a migraine history may also be more prone to exertion headaches. This is because the same changes which cause migraines, such as changes in blood vessels size, are also responsible for exertion headaches.
How to prevent them
Exercise headaches will disappear shortly after stopping. It usually takes an hour or so for the headache to disappear, once your heart rate drops and there is less oxygen demand from your brain.
If your headache is also caused by dehydration, you will need to replenish your fluids before it goes away. This usually takes three hours.
Paracetamol and ibuprofen may help if your symptoms persist or if you have a particularly painful headache.
If you experience exertion headaches often, you may want to talk to your doctor about certain prescription medications that can reduce symptoms and even prevent these headaches.
You can also take steps to prevent headaches due to exertion.
Exercises that are strenuous after a period of inactivity can cause headaches because your cardiovascular system may not be able to cope.
It’s important to ease yourself back into exercise if you’ve not exercised in a while. Warming up slowly each time you exercise will help your circulatory systems cope with changes in blood flow and pressure.
It is also important to stay hydrated. This will ensure that the blood vessels in the brain can function properly. Resting enough will help your brain to function at its best, and you’ll feel less pain.
Exercise can cause headaches, but they shouldn’t stop you from exercising. This is especially true in warmer weather, when they are more common.
Avoiding hot days and altitude, as well as warming up gradually, can help reduce your risk.
Try other forms of exercise that do not require a sustained heart rate peak, such as weightlifting or yoga.
Adam Taylor, Professor at Lancaster University and Director of the Clinical Anatomy Learning Centre
This article was republished by The Conversation under Creative Commons. Read the original article.
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